All projects aim to reach a perfectly functioning product with geometric order. At the start, they may face great uncertainty—living order—that does not completely disappear over the entire course of the project. Gradually, some parts of the project approach geometric order, though in an era of “permanent white water,” the project as a whole does not assume geometric order until very late in its life.
- Changes resulting from the dynamic environment.
- Surprises resulting from the unique, and often innovative, tasks.
- Difficulties of coping with challenging requirements and radical constraints, as well as with sudden changes in these requirements and constraints.
- Numerous unexpected events and problems subsequent to the above difficulties.
- Difficulties of coping with these problems due to the typical unique, temporary and evolving project organization, which is composed of heterogeneous units.